Global Hydrogen Flows

Authored by the Hydrogen Council in collaboration with McKinsey and Company, Global Hydrogen Flows addresses the midstream challenge of aligning and optimizing global supply and demand. It finds that trade can reduce overall system costs.

In doing so, it provides a perspective on how the global trade of hydrogen and derivatives, including hydrogen carriers, ammonia, methanol, synthetic kerosene, and green steel (which uses hydrogen in its production), can develop as well as the investments needed to unlock the full potential of global hydrogen and derivatives trade.

Our hope is that this report offers stakeholders – suppliers, buyers, original equipment manufacturers (OEMs), investors, and governments – a thorough and quantitative perspective that will help them make the decisions required to accelerate the uptake of hydrogen.

Key messages from the report:

  • Hydrogen and its derivatives will become heavily traded: 400 out of the 660 million tons (MT) of hydrogen needed for carbon neutrality by 2050 will be transported over long distances, with 190 MT crossing international borders.
  • In a cost-optimal world, around 50% of trade uses pipelines, while synthetic fuels, ammonia and sponge iron, transported on ships, account for approximately 45%. Europe and countries in the Far East will rely on imports, while North America and China are mostly self-reliant.
  • Trade has huge benefits: It can lower the cost of hydrogen supply by 25%, or as much as US$6 trillion of investments from now until 2050. This will accelerate the hydrogen transition, which can abate 80 gigatons of CO2 until 2050.

View and download the full report here.
Read the press release here.

New hydrogen projects achieve record numbers globally with even greater urgency for final investment decisions to attain net zero

  • Hydrogen Council releases its state of the industry report, Hydrogen Insights 2022, on the hydrogen imperative for the global energy transition
  • 680 large-scale projects announced globally reflecting investments of US$ 240 billion until 2030, an increase of 50% since November 2021
  • US$22 billion, or 10% of proposed investments, have reached FID, are under construction, or are already operational
  • Real deployment of hydrogen is growing (e.g. 80% increase in installed electrolyzers), and must continue to scale
  • Investment proposals must triple to US$700 billion until 2030 in order to achieve the global 2050 net zero target
  • Both policymakers and industry need to step up to deliver on hydrogen net-zero

BRUSSELS, September 20, 2022The urgency to ramp up investment in industrial-scale hydrogen energy projects is greater than ever, says a new report published today by the Hydrogen Council.

Developed in collaboration with global consultancy McKinsey & Company, the report, Hydrogen Insights 2022, highlights 680 large-scale* hydrogen project proposals have been announced, totaling US$240 billion in direct investment between now and 2030 – an increase of 50% since November 2021 alone.

With this substantial uptake in hydrogen energy project announcements, the next step by industry, investors and governments is to quickly ramp up final investment decisions (FIDs) in order to jump start project construction and operations as quickly as possible.

Yoshinori Kanehana, Chairman of Kawasaki Heavy Industries, Ltd. and Co-Chair of the Hydrogen Council, said, “With the growing concerns around energy security, it is clear our economies need hydrogen. But on-the-ground deployment is not moving fast enough and needs to accelerate to realize the benefits of hydrogen. This report proposes a series of priority actions for both policymakers and industry to overcome the challenges and accelerate large-scale hydrogen deployment.

“In addition, the report helps us understand the current state of the global hydrogen economy by highlighting what’s really happening in terms of deployment, financing and investment, as well as offering predictions for the future.”

Tom Linebarger, Executive Chairman and Chairman of the Board of Cummins Inc. and Co-Chair of the Hydrogen Council, said of the report, “Climate change is the existential crisis of our time, and it will require businesses and governments working together to address it and we must do more now. To move to a zero emissions future, we must have multiple solutions available for our customers who require vastly different applications around the world and hydrogen will play a critically important role.”

Capturing the maximum climate value of hydrogen to deliver the 2050 net zero carbon emissions target requires a tripling of investments in hydrogen projects by 2030 to US$700 billion, equivalent to an additional US$460 billion, the report explains.

The Council report goes on to note that the 2030 hydrogen investment figure is equivalent to less than 15% of investment committed to upstream oil and gas over the past decade.

To meet the planet’s commitment to positively impact climate change, the study makes clear that a rapid increase in hydrogen project investment and on-the-ground deployment is required.

Joint action by the public and private sectors is urgently needed to move from project proposals to FIDs.

Hydrogen Insights 2022 sets out mutually reinforcing priority actions both for policymakers and for industry across 2022 to 2023.

The full 2022 report is available here.

Notes to Editors
* ‘Large-scale’ is defined as projects larger than 1 MW of electrolysis or equivalent.

About the Report
Authored by the Hydrogen Council with McKinsey and Company, Hydrogen Insights 2022 provides the latest fact-based outlook on hydrogen deployment around the world, with the objective to guide regulatory and investment decision-making to scale up the hydrogen energy ecosystem.

The updated data in the report is built on the Hydrogen Insights 2021 report by the Hydrogen Council and McKinsey & Company.

About The Hydrogen Council
The Hydrogen Council is a global CEO-led initiative that brings together leading companies with a united vision and long-term ambition for hydrogen to foster the clean energy transition. The Council understands that hydrogen has a key role to play in reaching global decarbonization goals by helping to diversify energy sources worldwide, to foster business and technological innovation as drivers for long-term economic growth, and to decarbonize especially hard-to-abate industrial sectors.

To find out more visit and folow us on Twitter @HydrogenCouncil and LinkedIn

Media Enquiries
Joanna Sampson, Communications Manager

Hydrogen Insights 2022

Authored by the Hydrogen Council in collaboration with McKinsey and Company, Hydrogen Insights 2022 presents an updated perspective on hydrogen market development and actions required to unlock hydrogen at scale.

The pipeline of hydrogen projects is continuing to grow, but actual deployment is lagging.

680 large-scale project proposals worth USD 240 billion have been put forward, but only about 10% (USD 22 billion) have reached final investment decision (FID). While Europe leads in proposed investments (~30%), China is slightly ahead on actual deployment of electrolyzers (200 MW), while Japan and South Korea are leading in fuel cells (more than half of the world’s 11 GW manufacturing capacity).

The urgency to invest in mature hydrogen projects today is greater than ever.

For the world to be on track for net zero emissions by 2050, investments of some USD 700 billion in hydrogen are needed through 2030 – only 3% of this capital is committed today. Ambition and proposals by themselves do not translate into positive impact on climate change; investments and implementation on the ground is needed.

Joint action by the public and private sectors is urgently required to move from project proposals to FIDs.

Both governments and industry need to act to implement immediate actions for 2022 to 2023 – policymakers need to enable demand visibility, roll out funding support, and ensure international coordination; industry needs to increase supply chain capability and capacity, advance projects towards final investment decision (FID), and develop infrastructure for cross-border trade.

View and download the full report here.
Read the press release here.

Want to have the most up-to-date hydrogen market data and insights?
This report is accompanied by Hydrogen Insights, a paid subscription-based platform that will provide a regularly updated, global perspective on hydrogen investment momentum, market development, and cost competitiveness. The paid service is available for non-members of the Hydrogen Council. To subscribe and for more information, contact the Secretariat –

Fitfor55 – fit for purpose?

This article was first published in H2 View.

By Daria Nochevnik, Director of Policy and Partnerships, Hydrogen Council.

The RePowerEU plan published on May 18, following the European Commission communication of March 8, reinforces Europe’s commitment to rapidly reducing, and ultimately getting rid of, its dependence on Russian fossil fuels.

As part of the plan, alongside a suite of measures to diversify gas supplies in the short-to-medium term, as well as to remove bottlenecks around licensing and permitting for renewables, the commission laid out its vision for a Hydrogen Accelerator. The key target under the accelerator initiative is to use 20 million tonnes (mt) of renewable hydrogen in the EU by 2030, out of which 10 mt are to be produced within Europe and another 10 mt imported from third countries.

According to commission estimates, using 20 mt of renewable hydrogen in the EU in 2030 would displace up to 50 bcm – or up to a quarter –  of Russian natural gas imports.

In the words of the European Commission President Ursula von der Leyen, “The quicker we switch to renewables and hydrogen, combined with more energy efficiency, the quicker we will be truly independent and master our energy system1.”

The renewable power and hydrogen ambition set out in the RePowerEU plan is strong but how much system thinking is there across the underlying legislative measures? And are these underlying measures fit for purpose to unlock Europe’s hydrogen and renewable power potential?

Policymakers in Europe have been doing their utmost to respond to the immediate threat to the EU’s energy security. Yet making sure that short-term measures do not create inefficient outcomes in the longer run is a challenge.

By now, nearly everyone in the hydrogen world has heard of the concepts of additionality, geographical and temporal correlation set out in the proposed EU rules for qualifying hydrogen production as renewable for the purposes of compliance with the future EU-wide renewable hydrogen consumption targets2. At the same time, many have been struggling to figure out how exactly these qualifications will be applied in practice, both for renewable hydrogen produced in Europe and that imported from third countries.

For example, electrolysers connected to the grid would need to evidence that they are powered by unsubsidised renewable electricity and demonstrate the matching of renewable electricity with renewable hydrogen production on an hourly basis (otherwise the hydrogen produced would not be considered as renewable). 

Aside from the fact that hourly GOs exist in very few countries in Europe and globally, the stringent requirements placed on electrolysers beg the question: why is the role of hydrogen in enabling indirect electrification restricted?

Direct vs indirect electrification – why should we have ‘either/or’ and not both?

Imagine you purchase an electric car and to receive a tax benefit you need to qualify your rides as ‘renewables-based’ and evidence on an hourly basis that you are charging your electric vehicle with strictly renewable electricity. Side note: in 2021, power sector emissions in Germany were estimated at 349g CO₂/KWh of electricity generated3.

Following a similar logic, large data centres would have to be built strictly in countries whether the grid mix is already nearly fully renewable (there are only three in Europe – Sweden, Austria and Norway). Side note: data transmission networks consumed 260-340 TWh in 2023, or 1.1‑1.4% of global electricity use4.

Some suggest that direct electrification should be the priority, regardless from whether/the extent to which the electricity used is renewable, as renewable electricity capacity will increase. Yet this perspective neglects the complementary role of indirect electrification that can be achieved thanks to hydrogen deployment. Renewable hydrogen allows integrating greater renewable energy capacity in the system while:

  • Helping alleviate grid constraints (in Germany alone nearly €1bn of taxpayers’ funding was spent last year on curtailed renewable power)
  • Offering flexibility to the power grid
  • Allowing to make use of existing infrastructure endowments (repurposing gas pipelines for hydrogen use) to transport large volumes of renewable energy over long distances in a cost-effective manner
  • Enabling energy consumers for whom direct electrification is not a viable option (heavy industry) to decarbonise.

To get the chance to succeed in our race against climate change, we need both solutions – direct and indirect electrification – as they are complementary to each other.

Having a preference for one over the other is a policy choice and a way to pick winners. Yet there are no one-size-fits-all solutions for all geographies and end-users, and there will ultimately be no winners if we don’t deliver on
our climate commitments fast enough. 

Will renewable hydrogen have a future in Europe? 

The concept of additionality in itself is integral to hydrogen deployment. The ramp up of renewable hydrogen goes hand in hand with the development of new/additional renewable electricity capacity in Europe and globally.

However, the way in which it is proposed to apply additionality to renewable hydrogen in combination with geographical and temporal correlation puts in question the future of renewable hydrogen in Europe, let alone Europe’s ability to achieve the targets laid out in the Hydrogen Accelerator initiative. 

The conclusions from modelling the application of these criteria to some of the real-life project proposals are despairing. Not only would the cost of renewable hydrogen double (or in some cases, more than double), the load factors of electrolysers would be prohibitively low – in other words, the business case for electrolysers will be de facto jeopardised.

What about renewable hydrogen imported from third countries? Prospective exporters struggle to see how they could meet the required qualifications specific to the EU energy market design. The proposed rules fail to recognise the differences in energy market design and market infrastructure endowments in third countries, from which renewable hydrogen may be imported (where power pricing is not zonal, for example). In addition, one should consider that market infrastructure is at different stages of maturity across the prospective exporting countries, including those in North Africa (the first PPA was signed in Egypt only in 2020).

Another major barrier for prospective exporters of renewable hydrogen and derived products is indeed the requirement to have renewable hydrogen subject to ‘effective carbon pricing’. Let us not forget that the EU cap and trade system (EU ETS) had teething issues. While it was set up in 2005, one may argue that it really started delivering only towards the end of the last decade – it took it more than 15 years. While a number of jurisdictions outside the EU are looking at introducing cap-and-trade systems/carbon taxes, the adoption of these instruments is a lengthy legislative process.

The above requirement would preclude imports of renewable hydrogen or derived products from third countries with abundant renewable power resources due to the absence of carbon pricing in their respective jurisdictions.

Watershed moment for the EU energy system

The EU still has the chance to review renewable hydrogen qualifications and make them fit for purpose. A pragmatic approach embracing both direct electrification through renewable power and indirect electrification through hydrogen can be a true game-changer for Europe.

The RePowerEU plan offers Europe a unique opportunity to unlock its renewable electricity and hydrogen potential and reap decarbonisation, energy security, cost-efficiency and resilience benefits, and ultimately – to master its energy system. Will Europe take it?


  1. European Commission President Ursula von der Leyen’s address at the press conference on the RePowerEU communication, 08 March 2022
  2. The Delegated Acts on Renewable Fuels of Non-Biological Origin (RFNBO) that were due to be developed by 31 December 2021 as per Art. 27(3) and Art. 28 (5) setting out the methodology for qualifying electricity used for RFNBO production as renewable and the methodology for assessing the GHG emissions savings from RFNBO respectively

Seven New Members Join The Hydrogen Council to Advance the Global Clean Energy Transition

  • New members represent companies from across the hydrogen value chain
  • First South American member to join The Hydrogen Council
  • Rapid growth in Council membership highlights urgency for collective global action

Brussels, June 13, 2022The Hydrogen Council, the global CEO-led organisation, announced today the addition of seven new members:  Adani Group, Alfa Laval, Bloom Energy, CK Infrastructure, Ecopetrol, Gasunie and InterContinental Energy.  The Council’s members embrace a shared vision for hydrogen to advance the global clean energy transition for a more sustainable and resilient energy future.

Launched by 13 founding members in 2017, in just five years the Hydrogen Council has grown to 141 members from over 20 countries around the world, representing a wide range of sectors along the entire hydrogen value chain.

This fast acceleration in membership mirrors the unprecedented momentum being witnessed for clean hydrogen. There is no climate solution without hydrogen; it is the missing piece of the clean energy puzzle – a critical catalyst for our clean energy transition.

The Hydrogen Council’s latest members include:

  • Two new steering members – Colombia’s Ecopetrol, one of the leading integrated energy groups in the Americas, and InterContinental Energy, leading dedicated green fuels company.
  • Five new supporting members – Indian multinational conglomerate Adani Group; Sweden’s Alfa Laval, a leading global supplier of products and solutions for heat transfer, separation and fluid handling; California-based clean energy technology company Bloom Energy; global infrastructure company CK Infrastructure Holdings Limited;and Dutch energy infrastructure firm Gasunie.

Alfa Laval is the Hydrogen Council’s first Swedish member and Ecopetrol the first South American member.

The ethos of these six new members aligns with the Hydrogen Council’s vision for hydrogen to foster the clean energy transition for a better, more sustainable, and more resilient energy future.

Welcoming the new members and their contributions to the Hydrogen Council’s vision, Tom Linebarger, Chairman and CEO of Cummins Inc., and Co-Chair of the Hydrogen Council, said: “The Hydrogen Council’s strength comes from the engagement of our diverse leaders. Diversity of region, application, technology, language and culture brings multi-dimensional perspectives to a sustainable energy transition. At the conclusion of our recent Council meeting, we agreed on the importance of addressing climate change collaboratively and ahead of individual interests, which we believe will benefit all of our stakeholders.”

Yoshinori Kanehana, Chairman of Kawasaki Heavy Industries, Ltd., and Co-Chair of the Hydrogen Council, added: “Our latest members span the globe with their activity illustrating the critical role that hydrogen will play in the flow of decarbonised energy around the world. Hydrogen is already opening up new trading relationships and opportunities for development. The Council has a strong interest in the realisation of the international sustainable development goals in both exporting and importing partners in this new world of trade.”

What does joining the Hydrogen Council mean to these seven new members?

Felipe Bayón, CEO of Ecopetrol, commented: “Joining the Hydrogen Council means a great opportunity for Ecopetrol to accelerate our low-carbon hydrogen plan, as part of our Strategy 2040 ‘Energy that transforms’, and contribute to Colombia’s Hydrogen Roadmap.

“We believe that joint efforts, among the members of the Council, will trigger changes in investment patterns, technologies, and behaviours, in pursue of the ambition for hydrogen to foster the clean energy transition for a better, more sustainable, and more resilient energy future.”

Alicia Eastman, President of InterContinental Energy, commented: “InterContinental Energy joined the Hydrogen Council because we believe clean hydrogen and derivative energy products like clean ammonia are key to decarbonising the most difficult-to-abate sectors. In order to deploy these solutions at scale quickly, the world’s largest suppliers, logistics, infrastructure, investment, and consumer companies need to work together: designing and advocating for common certification and regulatory standards, dovetailing roadmaps and creating an optimised ecosystem to jointly tackle greenhouse gases.”

Vneet Jain, Managing Director and CEO of Adani Green Energy, commented: “Hydrogen is the fuel of the future and key to India’s energy security and to the decarbonisation of its economy. Adani Group is one of the largest renewable energy producers in the world and we believe we are uniquely positioned to lead India’s and the world’s transition to the hydrogen economy.

“Hydrogen Council, as a leading industry body, can play an enabling role in development of the Hydrogen ecosystems across the value chain.”

Tom Erixon, President & CEO of Alfa Laval, commented: “We see the hydrogen economy as an inevitable enabler of a Net Zero 2050 and recognise the importance of accelerating the deployment, scaling and commercialisation of the technologies to make this happen. Working together with the leading stakeholders in the industry and the members of the Hydrogen Council, we are developing solutions that are crucial for taking hydrogen technologies into the commercialisation stage.”

KR Sridhar, founder, Chairman and CEO of Bloom Energy,
commented: “If we don’t take immediate action to substantially reduce emissions, the planet is on track for disastrous temperature increases and climate change. By decarbonising with hydrogen, we can successfully impede and even reverse the adverse effects of the climate crisis.

“I had a mission when I founded Bloom in 2001 to make clean, reliable and affordable energy available for all. Our founding roots are in hydrogen technology, and the flexibility of our solid oxide platform enables organisations, large and small, to both efficiently produce and consume this clean fuel. And the energy industry has only just scratched the surface in terms of projects and applications. In joining the Hydrogen Council, we look forward to building a clean, energy abundant future together.”

Andrew Hunter, Deputy Managing Director of CK Infrastructure (CKI), commented: “CKI is looking forward to working with all members of the Hydrogen Council who are at the forefront of hydrogen use to help accelerate the transition to a carbon neutral world.”

Han Fennema, CEO of Gasunie, commented: “Gasunie strongly believes in the role of hydrogen in a sustainable energy system. That’s why we have joined the Hydrogen Council. In the coming years, we will be developing the national hydrogen network in The Netherlands. We are also working on hydrogen infrastructure development in Germany. This way, we will enable industries all across the Netherlands and Germany to become more sustainable.”

About The Hydrogen Council

The Hydrogen Council is a global CEO-led initiative that brings together leading companies with a united vision and long-term ambition for hydrogen to foster the clean energy transition. The Council believes that hydrogen has a key role to play in reaching our global decarbonisation goals by helping to diversify energy sources worldwide, foster business and technological innovation as drivers for long-term economic growth, and decarbonise hard-to-abate sectors.

Using its global reach to promote collaboration between governments, industry and investors, the Council provides guidance on accelerating the deployment of hydrogen solutions around the world. It also acts as a business marketplace, bringing together a diverse group of 140+ companies based in 20+ countries across the entire hydrogen value chain, including large multinationals, innovative SMEs, and investors.

The Hydrogen Council also serves as a resource for safety standards and an interlocutor for the investment community, while identifying opportunities for regulatory advocacy in key geographies.

To find out more visit and follow us on Twitter @HydrogenCouncil and LinkedIn

For questions, please contact:
Joanna Sampson, Communications Manager, Hydrogen Council.


Background on the Hydrogen Council’s new members

Steering Members

Ecopetrol: Ecopetrol is the largest company in Colombia and one of the leading integrated energy groups in the Americas, with presence in over nine countries, including the U.S. Its operations in the hydrocarbons value chain comprise the upstream, midstream, downstream and gas distribution segments. In 2021, Ecopetrol acquired a majority stake in Interconexión Eléctrica S.A. (ISA), the leading energy transmission company in Latin America that also participates in the management of real-time systems and toll roads. As part of its technology, environmental, social and governance agenda (TESG), the company is leading initiatives in decarbonization, renewables, water management, hydrogen, natural climate solutions and innovation.

InterContinental Energy: InterContinental Energy is one of the world’s largest green fuels companies with four integrated green hydrogen and green ammonia projects totalling upstream wind and solar of 200GW in Western Australia, Oman, and Saudi Arabia. ICE focuses on the triple bottom line, which includes financial viability as well as sustainable positive outcomes for the environment and society. 

Supporting Members

Adani Group: Adani Group, headquartered in Ahmedabad, is India’s fastest-growing portfolio of diversified businesses with presence in Transportation and Logistics (seaports, airports, logistics, shipping, road and rail), Resources, Power Generation and Distribution, Renewable Energy, Gas Infrastructure, Agribusiness (commodities, edible oil, food products, cold storage and grain silos), Real Estate, Cement, and Defence and Aerospace.

Adani Group owes its success and leadership position to its core purpose of “Nation Building” – a guiding principle for enabling India’s economic growth which is essential to improving the quality of life of its people. The Group is committed to protecting the environment and improving communities through its CSR programs based on the principles of sustainability, diversity and shared values.

Alfa Laval: Alfa Laval is a world leader in heat transfer, centrifugal separation and fluid handling, and is active in the areas of energy, marine, and food & water, offering its expertise, products, and service to a wide range of industries in some 100 countries. The company is committed to optimising processes, creating responsible growth, and driving progress to support customers in achieving their business goals and sustainability targets.

Alfa Laval’s innovative technologies are dedicated to purifying, refining, and reusing materials, promoting more responsible use of natural resources. They contribute to improved energy efficiency and heat recovery, better water treatment, and reduced emissions. Thereby, Alfa Laval is not only accelerating success for its customers, but also for people and the planet. Making the world better, every day.

Bloom Energy: Bloom Energy empowers businesses and communities to responsibly take charge of their energy. The company’s leading solid oxide platform for distributed generation of electricity and hydrogen is changing the future of energy. Fortune 100 companies around the world turn to Bloom Energy as a trusted partner to deliver lower carbon energy today and a net-zero future.

CK Infrastructure Holdings Limited: CK Infrastructure (CKI) is a global infrastructure company that has diversified investments in energy, transportation, water, waste and other infrastructure related businesses. Through Northern Gas Networks (NGN) in the UK and Australian Gas Infrastructure Group (AGIG), CKI are a major player in natural gas and a pioneer in hydrogen.

NGN is leading the development of hydrogen deployment in the UK’s existing gas network.  As well as supplying a 20% hydrogen blend to homes in the village of Winlaton near Gateshead as part of its HyDeploy demonstration project, NGN is progressing proposals to develop the UK’s first hydrogen village following approvals from UK Government and Great Britain’s energy regulator, Ofgem. The plans would see NGN bring clean burning hydrogen to around 2,000 homes and businesses in the North East of England with green hydrogen produced locally from renewable sources in Teesside.

In Australia, we are developing various projects across the country to demonstrate the approach to policy makers and help drive down costs. In May 2021, AGIG’s Hydrogen Park South Australia project started producing green hydrogen through a 1.45MW electrolyser and blending with natural gas to supply +700 homes.

Gasunie: Gasunie is a European energy-infrastructure company. Gasunie’s network is one of the largest high-pressure pipeline networks in Europe, comprising over 17,000km of pipeline in the Netherlands and northern Germany.

Gasunie provides natural and green gas transport services through its subsidiaries, Gasunie Transport Services B.V. (GTS) in the Netherlands and Gasunie Deutschland in Germany. With its cross-border gas infrastructure and services, Gasunie facilitates TTF, which has become the leading European gas trading point. Gasunie also provides other gas infrastructure services, including gas storage and LNG.

Gasunie wants to help accelerate the transition to a CO2-neutral energy supply and believes that gas-related innovations, for instance in the form of renewable gases such as hydrogen and green gas, can make an important contribution. Both existing and new gas infrastructure play a key role here. Gasunie also plays an active part in the development of other energy infrastructure to support the energy transition.

New horizons for hydrogen trade: Transporting clean energy overseas

This article was first published in H2 View.

By Daryl Wilson, Executive Director of the Hydrogen Council.

The transition to a clean energy system will require massive change. For the world to stay on the path towards net zero emissions by mid-century, global hydrogen demand alone should grow to 140 million metric tons (MT) in 2030 and 660 MT in 2050 – up from 90 MT in 20201. And while the necessity of change is clearly recognised today, the scale and complexity of actually making it happen aren’t so easy to fathom.

While most people can already visualise some elements of the future system, such as solar panels, wind turbines, or battery-electric vehicles, the hidden layers that serve the system are sometimes overlooked, but this is where the secret of systemic change lies for the energy sector. Pipelines, tankers, and oil and gas fields handle massive energy flows across large distances every day, taking energy from where there’s plenty to where there’s not enough. In the future global clean energy system, which integrates renewables and electricity, hydrogen will play a critical, complementary role. However, this will depend on building new and retrofitting and repurposing existing infrastructure, as well as creating the trade flows to transport hydrogen via pipelines and shipping around the world.

We know some regions such as Latin America, the Middle East, and Northern Africa have the potential to produce more clean hydrogen than needed for domestic use because of their natural endowment for the generation of renewable energy. Meanwhile, places like Japan and Korea with insufficient renewable sources will need to import most of the 35 MT of hydrogen they require in 20502. For the first category of regions to reap the economic benefits of their export potential, and for the latter to ensure they can get sufficient clean energy from elsewhere, industry, investors and governments need to take action to tackle the challenges of hydrogen transportation, import and export.

Choosing the suitable form to transport hydrogen

From liquefied hydrogen over ammonia to liquid organic hydrogen carrier (LOHC), the different forms each have their own benefits and challenges, and the preferred form depends on the end use3. Demonstration projects at scale are key to assess the cost and design requirements for different hydrogen carriers, and commercialise the technology. Industry frontrunners are already leading the way, a prime example being Kawasaki Heavy Industries’ liquefied hydrogen carrier, the Suiso Frontier4. Like the first oil tanker sailing from North America to Europe in 18695 and the first LNG shipment in 19596, the first shipment of bulk liquified hydrogen on the seas carried out by the Suiso Frontier earlier this year is a historic accomplishment, with the potential to radically change our energy trade flows.

Getting the right infrastructure in place

Exporting or importing large amounts of hydrogen requires appropriate ports, logistics and infrastructure. In regions with the right conditions and ambition to develop into demand hubs, big investments need to be made to develop a fully-fledged hydrogen import chain: new import terminals, storage and distribution infrastructure. This decade is a critical period for scaling up shipping of hydrogen; but infrastructure building needs long lead times, meaning projects need to kick off now.

Developing international standards and certification systems

Cross-border trade needs a common language. The absence of harmonised standards and certification systems for assessing and evidencing hydrogen’s sustainability attributes is an unnecessary barrier to investment. By eliminating inconsistent rules and methods to determine hydrogen’s carbon footprint, countries can provide certainty to buyers about hydrogen’s origin, offer more clarity on hydrogen’s contribution to decarbonisation goals, and reduce administrative costs. To illustrate, in Japan, such a reduction of the administrative burden on hydrogen import from Australia could generate up to $2bn of savings in 20307.

More and more governments, businesses and investors understand that massive changes in our energy system require a versatile energy vector to move large quantities of clean energy around, and hydrogen is the ideal candidate to do that job. Australia is just one example of a country with ideal natural conditions for renewables, which has already signed hydrogen trade agreements with Japan, South Korea, Singapore and Germany – all countries which recognise that international cross-border shipments of energy will still be required in the clean energy system of the future.

The Hydrogen Council is working to highlight the challenges and opportunities in the energy transition and build understanding around the practical and impactful role that hydrogen can make as part of the necessary systemic change. Together with our international partners, we are also facilitating the development of common international standards, alongside robust and tradeable certification systems for hydrogen to build consumer trust and foster global hydrogen trade. If we get the enabling policy frameworks and tools in place and sufficient financial support for the necessary infrastructure, hydrogen will soon be ready to set sail at scale.

This article was published in the March issue of H2 View magazine.


1.“Hydrogen for Net Zero”, Hydrogen Council, November 2021

2. “Hydrogen for Net Zero”, Hydrogen Council, November 2021

3. “Dawn of a new age: First seaborne liquefied hydrogen shipment underway”, IHS Markit, 28 January 2022

4. “World’s First Liquefied Hydrogen Carrier SUISO FRONTIER Launches Building an International Hydrogen Energy Supply Chain Aimed at Carbon-free Society”, Kawasaki Heavy Industries”, 11 December 2019

5. “July 30, 1869: Moving Oil in Bulk, for Good and Ill”, Wired, 29 July 2008

6. “Methane Pioneer”, Wikipedia

7. “Hydrogen Policy Toolbox”, Hydrogen Council, November 2021

Hydrogen Council membership grows to more than 130 members, with eleven new companies committing to foster development of the hydrogen economy

Brussels, 26 January 2022 – The Hydrogen Council, a global CEO-led coalition working to accelerate the energy transition through hydrogen, announced today eleven joining members. The organisation now counts 134 companies from across the globe representing the entire hydrogen value chain and working towards the development of hydrogen solutions to foster the decarbonisation of our economies.

The Hydrogen Council brings together companies from a variety of sectors – including the automotive industry, chemicals producers, energy companies, engineers, investors and pension funds – committed to the development and implementation of hydrogen solutions that will play a fundamental role in building a clean and diversified energy system.

Hydrogen Council co-chairs, Tom Linebarger, Chairman and CEO of Cummins, and Benoît Potier, Chairman and CEO of Air Liquide, welcome these new members and their contributions to the Council’s vision.

The Hydrogen Council now includes one new steering member: OCI NV; nine new supporting members: Eberspächer Gruppe, Fuel Cell Energy, Haldor Topsoe, Matrix Service Company, PJSC Cryogenmash, Southern Company, Subsea 7, The Anschutz Corporation, Westport Fuel Systems; and one new investor: Temasek.

The Hydrogen Council has welcomed its first Danish member represented by Haldor Topsoe, specialised in solid oxide electrolysis cell solutions and green fuels and chemicals production from hydrogen. PJSC Cryogenmash, specialising in air separation, liquefied natural gas (LNG) and hydrogen technologies is the first Russian company to join the Council.

With those new companies joining the Hydrogen Council, our sectoral and geographical diversity illustrates the central role of hydrogen in the transition to a decarbonised economy. Hydrogen Council members are working together to bring concrete solutions to life and act now for the transition to a clean energy future.

“I am incredibly encouraged by the growth we’ve seen on the Hydrogen Council over the past year. It is a clear demonstration of hydrogen’s momentum in the race to global decarbonisation. The Council’s ever-diversifying membership, including the companies joining us today, reflects the breadth of industries and geographies in which hydrogen can play a vital role.” – Tom Linebarger, Chairman and CEO, Cummins Inc., and Co-chair of the Hydrogen Council.


About the Hydrogen Council:

The Hydrogen Council is a global CEO-led initiative that brings together leading companies with a united vision and long-term ambition for hydrogen to foster the clean energy transition. The Council believes that hydrogen has a key role to play in reaching our global decarbonisation goals by helping to diversify energy sources worldwide, foster business and technological innovation as drivers for long-term economic growth, and decarbonise hard-to-abate sectors. Using its global reach to promote collaboration between governments, industry and investors, the Council provides guidance on accelerating the deployment of hydrogen solutions around the world. It also acts as a business marketplace, bringing together a diverse group of 130+ companies based in 20+ countries and across the entire hydrogen value chain, including large multinationals, innovative SMEs, and investors. The Hydrogen Council also serves as a resource for safety standards and an interlocutor for the investment community, while identifying opportunities for regulatory advocacy in key geographies. To find out more visit and follow us on Twitter @HydrogenCouncil and LinkedIn.

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Hydrogen Council Press Office 

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About our new members:

Steering Members:

OCI NV: OCI N.V. (Euronext: OCI) is a leading global producer and distributor of hydrogen-based products providing low carbon fertilisers, fuels, and feedstock to agricultural, transportation, and industrial customers around the world. OCI’s production capacity spans four continents and comprises approximately 16.2 million metric tons per year of hydrogen-based products including nitrogen fertilisers, methanol, biofuels, diesel exhaust fluid, melamine, and other products. OCI has more than 3,600 employees, is headquartered in the Netherlands and listed on Euronext in Amsterdam.

Supporting Members:

Eberspächer: With approximately 10,000 employees at 80 locations worldwide, the Eberspächer Group is one of the automotive industry’s leading system developers and suppliers. The family business, headquartered in Esslingen am Neckar, stands for innovative solutions in exhaust technology, automotive electronics and thermal management for a broad range of vehicle types. In combustion or hybrid engines and in e-mobility, the components and systems from Eberspächer ensure greater comfort, higher safety and a clean environment. Eberspächer is paving the way for future technologies such as mobile and stationary fuel cell applications, synthetic fuels as well as the use of hydrogen as an energy carrier. In 2020, the Group generated revenue of more than 4.9 billion euros.

FuelCell Energy: FuelCell Energy is a global leader in decarbonising power and producing hydrogen through our proprietary fuel cell technologies. Our mission is to enable a world powered by clean energy. As an innovator and manufacturer of fuel cell clean power platforms, FuelCell Energy has the only technologies in the world capable of capturing carbon from an external source, producing power, and hydrogen at the same time. In addition, we offer the only technology in the world capable of producing hydrogen, power, and water simultaneously.

Haldor Topsoe: Topsoe is a global leader in solid-oxide electrolysis cell (SOEC) technology’ that produces green hydrogen from water and renewable power. A technology that is consistently more energy-efficient than today’s standard technologies. Building on decades of experience in technologies to produce chemicals and fuels, Topsoe is able to connect proven technologies with highly efficient SOEC electrolysis to produce essential green chemicals and fuels such as green ammonia, eMethanol, and eFuels in the shape of sustainable gasoline, diesel, and jet fuel from non-fossil feedstocks including captured carbon, biomass, waste, and renewable electricity. We are headquartered in Denmark and serve customers all around the globe. In 2020, our revenue was approximately USD 1 billion, and we employ around 2,100 employees. 

Matrix Service Company: Matrix Service Company’s subsidiaries provide engineering, procurement, fabrication, construction (“EPFC”), maintenance and products to the energy and industrial markets. They bring extensive experience in cryogenic and specialty storage vessels, terminals, and related balance of plant facilities that complement their client’s transition to carbonless energy.  They work in partnership with technology providers such as Chart Industries to develop and integrate standardised hydrogen solutions in the Americas, including hydrogen liquefaction plants, marine bunkering, fueling stations, plant expansions, storage expansion, spaceship fueling and other hydrogen related facilities.

PJSC Cryogenmash: Cryogenmash is Russia’s largest company in the development of air separation technologies, LNG and Hydrogen technologies based on scientific discoveries made by Piotr Kapitsa, a Russian Nobel Prize laureate in Physics. Throughout its history, Cryogenmash continuously pursued scientific studies of Hydrogen properties and their impact on a range of materials.  Since 1960 Cryogenmash has been designing and constructing liquid hydrogen storage and transportation tanks, purification systems, cryogenic pipelines and fittings, as well as hydrogen liquefiers. The company is proud to be a reliable supplier of high-tech hydrogen equipment to leading Russian customers and abroad. The Company sees its mission in contributing to sustainable economic development by offering a complete scope of services: design, manufacturing, erection, commissioning, after-sales service, and on-site operations of cryogenic facilities. Having strong and proven references, Cryogenmash has set an ambitious goal to become a national Center of Competence focused on Hydrogen storage and transportation.

Southern Company: Southern Company is a leading U.S. energy company serving 9 million customers. The company provides clean, safe, reliable, affordable energy through electric operating companies in three states, natural gas distribution companies in four states, a competitive generation company serving wholesale customers, a distributed energy infrastructure company, fiber optics network and telecommunications services. For over a century, we have been building the future of energy and developing the full portfolio of energy resources. Through a commitment to innovation and a net-zero future, Southern Company and its subsidiaries develop the energy solutions our customers and communities require to drive growth and prosperity. Southern Company’s industry-leading research and development organisation explores a full spectrum of technologies to address the world’s greatest energy challenges.

Subsea 7: Subsea 7 is a global leader in the delivery of offshore projects and services for the evolving energy industry. We create sustainable value by being the industry’s partner and employer of choice in delivering the efficient offshore solutions the world needs. Our offshore operations span five decades and we have successfully completed over 1000+ projects. Working in all water depths across all energy hubs, our engineering expertise, alliances and specialist technologies enable us to engage early so that our multi-disciplinary teams can design and deliver the solutions that our clients want. We have a strong track record of safe and reliable delivery. Our reputation as a collaborative service provider in long-lasting client relationships makes us one of the most trusted contractors in our market which includes oil and gas and renewable energy.

The Anschutz Corporation: Founded more than 75 years ago, The Anschutz Corporation is a privately held company that owns and operates a diverse portfolio of investments, including those in the natural and renewable resource industries. The company is constructing the nation’s largest wind power project in Carbon County, Wyoming, and developing the West’s largest high-voltage interregional electric transmission system. The wind and transmission projects are at the heart of an expanded initiative that the company is planning called the Wyoming Clean Power Center (WCPC). The centre is being designed as a fully integrated green energy hub for the giga-scale production and transportation of clean, renewable electricity and associated clean power-produced products, such as green hydrogen and ammonia.

Westport Fuel Systems: Westport Fuel Systems is driving innovation to power a cleaner tomorrow. The company is a leading supplier of advanced fuel delivery components and systems for clean, low-carbon fuels such as natural gas, renewable natural gas, hydrogen and propane to the global automotive industry. Westport Fuel Systems’ technology delivers the performance and fuel efficiency required by transportation applications and the environmental benefits that address climate change and urban air quality challenges. The company’s ongoing work with hydrogen is proving a solution that can provide up to a 100% Well to Wheel net-zero carbon resolution while offering a compelling lower total cost of ownership for high load applications in the global automotive industry. Headquartered in Vancouver, Canada, with operations in Europe, Asia, North America and South America, the company serves customers in more than 70 countries with leading global transportation brands.


Temasek: Temasek is a global investment company with a net portfolio value of S$381 billion (US$283b) as at 31 March 2021. Headquartered in Singapore, it has 13 offices in 9 countries around the world. The Temasek Charter defines Temasek’s three roles as an Investor, Institution and Steward, which shape its ethos to do well, do right, and do good. As a provider of catalytic capital, it seeks to enable solutions to key global challenges. With sustainability at the core of all Temasek does, it actively seeks sustainable solutions to address present and future challenges, as it captures investible opportunities to bring about a sustainable future for all. 

Net zero isn’t a zero-sum game in transport – both battery and fuel cell electric vehicles are needed

This article was first published in H2 View.

The movement of people and goods throughout society has always depended on more than one technology. Different individuals, businesses, geographies and segments of the transportation system have different needs and no single solution can meet all of them alone.

This continues to be true as we look towards a clean mobility future.

We are convinced that reaching net zero in global transportation is not a zero-sum, single solution game. Instead, we need a combination of technologies with different strengths – namely battery electric vehicles (BEVs) and fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEVs) – to create a system that is greener, and to do so faster and cheaper than pursuing just one of these options in isolation.

There are three primary reasons for this “combined world” approach:

First, efficiency: a tank-to-wheel perspective, sometimes used to compare BEVs vs. FCEVs, is too narrow to truly encompass the global challenge we are up against. If we are to deliver on a comprehensive energy transition, we need to consider the source of energy, whether sun or wind. BEVs can be easily charged with local solar and wind resources, but not all regions enjoy renewable electricity self-sufficiency. This is where hydrogen can play a positive role. Because hydrogen can be transported across regions, it can be produced in ideal locations with high solar and wind output and then exported where needed. A sun-to-wheel or wind-to-wheel perspective changes the efficiency debate entirely. The same holds true when the entire life cycle of a vehicle is considered rather than purely the tank-to-wheel efficiency: BEVs and FCEVs are almost compatible.

Second, infrastructure: the development of BEVs and FCEVs with their respective infrastructure networks will create a symbiotic transport ecosystem, which enables a more rapid and – perhaps surprisingly – more cost-effective transition. As more BEVs are deployed, the demand on the electricity grid will require costly upgrades and expansion into more remote regions. These costs can be reduced by decreasing the demand on the grid through parallel buildout of a hydrogen refuelling network.

For example, the scale of infrastructure investment for fast charging is obvious for highway refuelling. The massive energy consumption of heavy-duty trucks will need to be recharged during the drivers’ resting times to be commercially feasible. In practical terms, that means the power consumption of each highway charging station would need to equal a town of approximately 25,000 inhabitants, which needs to be provided in remote areas with sufficient buildout of cabling and substations. This is exactly where hydrogen can help.

Last but certainly not least, consumers: context and location of vehicle use is one of the key considerations in the transition to electric mobility. A suburban commuter in a single-family home with parking and charging access will be well served by a BEV. However, a business traveler relying on a highly flexible vehicle with changeable, long routes and no reliable charging access would favour the FCEV for higher productivity. All in all, the better we address these diverse needs, the faster we can help consumers transition to electric solutions. And every additional BEV or FCEV on the road is a step in the right direction, bringing us closer to our shared vision of clean mobility.

We may not know exactly what the world will look like by 2050 but we do know this is a transition of an unprecedented scale and risk, and we are in its initial stages with many issues to be solved throughout the entire transportation value chain. Offering multiple technologies tailored to individual use cases increases the user acceptance for this substantial societal and business challenge and hence increases the speed of transition. The climate crisis requires collaboration across regions, stakeholders, and all available technological solutions. There’s no time to spare and the only way to win is by working together.

Stefan Herbst, General Manager, Toyota Motor Europe

Peter Mackey, Vice President, Strategy & Policy Support, Hydrogen Energy, Air Liquide

Dr. Juergen Guldner, Head of Hydrogen Fuel Cell Technology, BMW Group

CEO Coalition to COP26 leaders: Hydrogen to contribute over 20% of global carbon abatement by 2050– Strong public-private collaboration required to make it a reality

  • Swift uptake of renewable and low carbon hydrogen by 2030 and expansion to an economy-wide solution by mid-century are essential to deliver on global net-zero targets.
  • Investment has reached a critical threshold and urgent, decisive policy action is now needed to fully unlock hydrogen’s climate and societal benefits.

Brussels, 3 November 2021 – As the UN Climate Change Conference convenes in Glasgow, the Hydrogen Council CEO coalition is calling on world leaders – public and private – to show concerted effort to materialise announced hydrogen plans around the globe to get the world on track with climate targets. Going hand in hand with electrification, the development of the hydrogen economy is vital to enable deep decarbonisation worldwide in a cost-effective and efficient manner, allowing countries to meet their climate goals, boost green growth and create sustainable jobs. To stimulate the bold action needed, the Hydrogen Council is putting forward new, comprehensive data on the carbon abatement potential of hydrogen, alongside a ready-to-deploy toolbox of instruments and measures to create enabling policy frameworks for renewable and low carbon hydrogen.

The Council’s “Hydrogen for Net Zero” report shows that hydrogen can provide the lowest-cost decarbonisation solution for over a fifth of final energy demand by mid-century – contributing a cumulated reduction of 80Gt of CO2 – and is thus an essential solution to reach the 1.5°C climate scenario. Within the next decade, global demand for renewable and low carbon hydrogen could grow by 50%. By 2030, this would translate into an annual CO2 emissions abatement equivalent to the total volume of CO2 emitted by UK, France, and Belgium combined. However, this important steppingstone requires a significant scaling up of production, infrastructure and end uses now.

The industry has built a solid foundation with more than 520 large-scale projects and 90+ GW of electrolyser production capacity announced worldwide, equivalent to $160bn of direct investments. However, closer public-private collaboration is critical to increase investments: a fourfold increase is required by 2030 to put the world on the trajectory to Net Zero. Only by frontloading investments and funding support in this decade can we scale up hydrogen to the level needed to reach global climate goals by 2050, while bringing costs down.

The “Policy Toolbox for Low Carbon and Renewable Hydrogen”, released in tandem with the above report, represents a first-of-its-kind comprehensive assessment of dozens of hydrogen policy measures applied across different segments of the value chain at different stages of market maturity. It demonstrates how a set of effective policy and regulatory measures can provide the necessary visibility to investors in short-to-medium term, as well as in the longer term, helping to reduce project risk, thereby bringing down hydrogen costs, driving uptake and stimulating cross-border trade in hydrogen. It also sheds light on the need for factoring in policy design societal values and benefits associated with the hydrogen economy development to contribute to delivering on the UN Sustainable Development Goals.

Benoît Potier, Chairman and CEO of Air Liquide and Co-chair of the Hydrogen Council, said: “Global warming is a key challenge of our times. Hydrogen is now widely recognised as a key element of a successful energy transition. To accelerate, governments and the industry must synchronise efforts to materialise its potential in order to actually meet net-zero targets. The data and policy guidance released today by the Hydrogen Council are critical in the context of COP26. This is a call to action for decisionmakers and industry to join forces and realise planned activity, to set the transition up for success.”

“Hydrogen can enable cost-effective decarbonisation of economies worldwide. There is clear momentum in hydrogen investments, but a transformation of such magnitude requires unprecedented mobilisation of public and private resources through strong partnerships and policy support. We look forward to working with governments on hydrogen for the benefit of our shared climate goals,” said Tom Linebarger, Chairman and CEO of Cummins and Co-Chair of the Hydrogen Council.

Daryl Wilson, Executive Director of the Hydrogen Council added: “Put simply – there is no climate solution without hydrogen. We know from past experiences with technologies such as wind and solar that frontloading investments and policy support in early market development phase can bring down costs quickly, enabling deployment at pace and scale. Our new reports not only define how hydrogen can grow into an economy-wide solution by 2050, but offer practical recommendations on how to get there: by ramping up investments within the next decade, underpinned by efficient policy design.”

“The momentum in hydrogen continues to accelerate: announced electrolysis capacity for 2030 has doubled this year and announced project investments increased to $160bn, with total investments into the ecosystem estimated at more than three times that figure,” added Bernd Heid, Senior Partner at McKinsey & Company. “In a path towards our decarbonisation commitments, clean hydrogen demand can grow to 75 Mt by 2030; of this, two-thirds will stem from new markets like steel, industry, mobility, aviation, and maritime. To meet this new demand, we will see the emergence of new energy hubs and global value chains that enable a hydrogen market seven times its current size by mid-century.”


About the reports:
The report “Hydrogen for Net Zero” by the Hydrogen Council and McKinsey & Company was developed in close collaboration with Hydrogen Council members. The report presents an ambitious, yet realistic deployment scenario until 2030 and 2050 to achieve Net Zero emissions, considering the uses of hydrogen in industry, power, mobility, and buildings. The scenario is described in terms of hydrogen demand, supply, infrastructure, abatement potential and investments required, and then compared with current momentum and investments in the industry to identify the investment gaps across value chains and geographies. The report is based on the technoeconomic data of cost and performance of hydrogen technologies provided by Hydrogen Council members and McKinsey & Company as well as the Hydrogen Council investment tracker, which covers all large-scale investments into hydrogen globally. The report “Policy Toolbox for Low Carbon and Renewable Hydrogen” was developed with analytical support by Vivid Economics and is based on an assessment of the performance of hydrogen policies in different stages of market maturity and segments of the value chain. 48 policies were shortlisted based on their economic efficiency and effectiveness and mapped to barriers across the value chain and over time. These policies were subsequently clustered into policy packages for three country archetypes: a self-sufficient hydrogen producer, an importer, and an exporter of hydrogen. See both reports here.

About the Hydrogen Council:
The Hydrogen Council is a global CEO-led initiative that brings together leading companies with a united vision and long-term ambition for hydrogen to foster the clean energy transition. The Council believes that hydrogen has a key role to play in reaching our global decarbonisation goals by helping to diversify energy sources worldwide, foster business and technological innovation as drivers for long-term economic growth, and decarbonise hard-to-abate sectors. Using its global reach to promote collaboration between governments, industry and investors, the Council provides guidance on accelerating the deployment of hydrogen solutions around the world. It also acts as a business marketplace, bringing together a diverse group of 120+ companies based in 20+ countries and across the entire hydrogen value chain, including large multinationals, innovative SMEs, and investors. The Hydrogen Council also serves as a resource for safety standards and an interlocutor for the investment community, while identifying opportunities for regulatory advocacy in key geographies. To find out more visit and follow us on Twitter @HydrogenCouncil and LinkedIn.

Hydrogen Council Press Office (FTI Consulting):
Lilya Nguyen, +1 202 346 8865 – (Global/U.S.)
Evelyne Bauer, +32 477 56 26 15 – (EU)